Kajian Saintifik Gaharu / Scientific Research

Kajian Saintifik Daun Gaharu

Daun Agarwood (Gaharu) digunakan sejak ratusan tahun dahulu oleh orang Melayu, Cina, Arab, dan juga rakyat yang menetap sepanjang laluan perdagangan; dari negara-negara Arab merentasi lautan ke Selat Melaka dan akhirnya ke Negara China. Daun ini didagangkan dalam bentuk teh atau daun kering.

Kebaikan dan nilai kesihatan daun Agarwood (Gaharu) semakin banyak dikaji oleh ahli-ahli sains semenjak awal abad ini.Di antaranya ahli-ahli sains dari negara asia tengah, Indonesia, Malaysia dan Thailand. Kebanyakan kajian ini dijalankan di negara-negara Asia kerana sejarah perdagangan dan kegunaan tradisional daun Agarwood (Gaharu) di Asia. Keputusan kajian-kajian tersebut amatlah menakjubkan. Di antaranya:

  1.  Lebih 30 antioxida yang berjaya dikenal pasti daripada daun Agarwood (Gaharu) ini melalui kaedah High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) dan Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). Antara partikel yang diasingkan adalah EGCG, EGC dan flavonoids [1,2,3]. Daun Agarwood (Gaharu) ini didapati mengandungi konsentrasi polyphenol dan flavanoid yang tinggi. Polyphenol dan flavanoid ini dikategorikan sebagai antioksida yang berupaya meneutralkan partikel oksigen yang reaktif (ROS). Partikel ini dihasilkan oleh sel-sel kulit apabila terdedah kepada cahaya matahari dan juga metabolisme sel kulit.

    Ini terbukti dengan ekstrak daun Agarwood (Gaharu) yang mempunyai EC50 yang rendah apabila dicampur dengan cecair DPPH. Ini bermakna daun Agarwood (Gaharu) mempunyai keupayaan tinggi untuk meneutralkan partikel oksigen yang reaktif [2].

    Untuk pengetahuan, partikel oksigen reaktif menyebabkan penuaan kulit badan dan juga antara sebab utama pigmentasi pada kulit.       
  2. Aktiviti anti-bakteria in vitro. Mengikut kajian oleh Hendra et al., ekstrak daun Agarwood (Gaharu) berupaya untuk mencegah pertumbuhan bacteria di dalam pinggan petri. Ia berupaya untuk mencegah bakteria seperti Staphylococcus aureus dan Escherichia coli. Walaupun kajian ini hanyalah di peringkat awal, ia menunjukkan potensi daun Agarwood (Gaharu) sebagai ejen anti-bakteria [2].         
  3. Aktiviti anti-keradangan. Menurut beberapa kajian, daun Agarwood (Gaharu) ini berupaya untuk mengurangkan inflamasi badan kerana ia mempunyai beberapa kompaun yang anti-inflamasi [1].         

Rujukan:

  1. Adam, Aimi & Lee, Shiou Yih & Mohamed, Rozi. (2017). Pharmacological properties of agarwood tea derived from Aquilaria (Thymelaeaceae) leaves: An emerging contemporary herbal drink. Journal of Herbal Medicine. 10. 37-40.
  2. Hendra, Hadi & Moeljopawiro, Sukarti & Nuringtyas, Tri. (2016). Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of agarwood (Aquilaria malaccensis Lamk.) leaves. 1755.
  3. Taha, Kamal. (2017). Characterization of Methanolic Extracts of Agarwood Leaves.

Scientific Research on Agarwood (Oud/Gaharu) Leaf 

Agarwood leaves have been used for millenniums by people along the ancient maritime  trade route that spans across the Middle East, India, Straits of Malacca to China. These leaves were traded as herbs in the form of dried Agarwood tea leaves. Since ancient times, these leaves were used by these people for various health purposes.

The health benefits of Agarwood leaves have recently been scientifically studied by scientists from primarily from Central Asia and Southeast Asia. This is because the exposure of Agarwood in the west as of now is low. Therefore, most of the research in Agarwood leaves is done in Asia; owning to the trade history and partly attributed to the high regard Asians in general, place towards Agarwood.

In summary, the result of these researches by scientist are non other than intriguing. To name a few of the benefit of agarwood leaves:

  1. Over 30 antioxidants were isolated from Agarwood leaf via methods such as High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). Examples of it include EGCG and EGC. Agarwood leaves were also found to contain high levels of polyphenol and flavanoids. These compounds are highly valued antioxidants that are capable to neutralise reactive oxygen species (ROS). Reactive oxygen species are radicals that are produced by the cells of the body during sunlight exposure and also as a part of normal cell metabolism; all which is implicated in skin aging and pigmentation [1,2,3].

  2. This antioxidant activities of Agarwood leaves is evident in experiments conducted where it possesses a low EC50 when reacted with DPPH. In a nutshell, this means that Agarwood leaves has a high potential to neutralise reactive oxygen species (ROS). It is this ROS that causes skin aging and also skin pigmentation.

  3. In vitro antibacterial properties. According to research conducted by Henra et al., the extract of Agarwood leaves are capable of preventing the growth of bacteria in petri dish, This includes Staphylococcus Aureus and Escherichia coli. Although these research are still in early stages, this demonstrates the potential antibacterial properties of Agarwood leaf [2].

  4. Anti-inflammatory activity. According to several studies, Agarwood leaves are capable to reduce body inflammation. This is because it has several compounds that are anti-inflammatory [1].

References:

  1. Adam, Aimi & Lee, Shiou Yih & Mohamed, Rozi. (2017). Pharmacological properties of agarwood tea derived from Aquilaria (Thymelaeaceae) leaves: An emerging contemporary herbal drink. Journal of Herbal Medicine. 10. 37-40.
  2. Hendra, Hadi & Moeljopawiro, Sukarti & Nuringtyas, Tri. (2016). Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of agarwood (Aquilaria malaccensis Lamk.) leaves. 1755.
  3. Taha, Kamal. (2017). Characterization of Methanolic Extracts of Agarwood Leaves.